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The municipality of Sto. Domingo is classified as a 3rd class municipality with an average annual income of P69,476,070.12 as of 2010. Being an agricultural town, the majority of Sto. Domingo’s Labor Force was engaged in agricultural and other agro-related activities while a few are salary earners and a substantial number are enterprising entrepreneurs.
1. ECONOMIC FRAMEWORK PROFILE
1.1.1 Agricultural Land Area
Agricultural area refers to land area intended for cultivation, fishing and pastoral activities. The existing land use of the municipality places 89.91% of the total land area as devoted to agriculture. This accounts for about 8,603.3277 hectares characterized as follows:
AGRICULTURAL LAND DATA, 2007
|LAND PARTICULARS||AREA (Ha)||PERCENT OF|
|Total Agricultural Area||8,603.33|
|o Crop Area||8,588.33||99.82|
|o Pasture Area|
|o Fishery Area (Man-made Fishponds)||15||0.18|
|Under CARP Coverage||5,181.92||59.64|
Majority of the crop areas of the municipality is irrigated, either through surface water irrigation provided by the Upper Pampanga River Irrigation System (UPRIS) of the National Irrigation Administration (NIA), or through groundwater irrigation using small engine-driven pumping systems. The cultivated crop lands with their current irrigation status is given below:
IRRIGATION STATUS OF CULTIVATED CROP LAND
|IRRIGATION METHOD||AREA (Ha)||REMARKS|
|1. SURFACE WATER IRRIGATION||7,943.83||Devoted to palay monocrop prodn|
|Provided by UPRIS|
|2. GROUNDWATER IRRIGATION||577.5||Combination of palay and high value|
|Provided through Irrigation Pumps||Crops (onion, tomato, water melon )|
|3. RAINFED IRRIGATION||82||Devoted to palay during Wet Season.|
|TOTAL CROP AREA||8,603.33|
1.1.2 Agrarian Reform Areas
Out of the total agricultural area of 8,603.3277 hectares, about 60.23 % is covered by the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program (CARP). About 23 barangays are subjected under CARP but the barangays that have the most concentration of agrarian reform beneficiaries are Baloc, Sto. Rosario, Casulucan and Sta. Rita.
1.1.3 Farm Mechanization and Post Harvest Status
a) Existing Facilities
The current agricultural facilities available in the municipality are given below:
AGRICULTURAL FACILITIES AND MACHINERIES, 2007
|Multi-Purpose Drying Pavement||53||300||Inadequate|
|o Grain Center||2||4,344||Inadequate|
|o Weighing Center||2||4,344||Inadequate|
AGRICULTURAL FACILITIES AND MACHINERIES, 2007
|o Hand Tractors||956||10||Adequate|
|o Mini Tractors||32||197||Adequate|
|o Big Tractor||10||869||Adequate|
|o Rice Thresher||308||33||Adequate|
|o Mechanical Dryer||2||965||Inadequate|
|o Rice Mill||6||348||Inadequate|
1.1.5 Animal Production Status
b) Non-Pasture Animals
The most commonly raised non- pasture animals are chicken, ducks (itik) and hogs.
Apart from chicken and hogs raised in the backyard, there are also commercial poultry and piggery enterprises established in various rural barangays. The inventory of such commercial establishments is given below:
COMMERCIAL PIGGERY AND POULTRY ESTABLISHMENT, 2008
|1. Broiler Production|
|o Brgy Baloc||2||40,000 heads/cycle|
|o Brgy Concepcion||8||200,000 heads/cycle|
|o Brgy Malayantoc||2||40,000 heads/cycle|
|o Brgy Sagaba||2||20,000 heads/cycle|
|o Brgy San Fabian||2||20,000 heads/cycle|
|o Brgy Sto Rosario||4||1,000 heads/cycle|
|3. Itik Egg Production|
|o Brgy Buasao||1||15,000 layers/cycle|
|o Brgy Mambarao||1||4,000 layers/cycle|
|o Brgy Sta Rita||1||5,000 layers/cycle|
|o Brgy Burgos||1||150-sow level|
The poultry production (chicken) is mainly undertaken in Contract Growing scheme with feed and food manufacturers.
As of 2008, the population figures of non- pasture animals are given below:
NON-PASTURE ANIMAL POPULATION DATA, 2008
|PASTURE ANIMALS||NUMBER||PERCENT OF PROVINCE|
The sustainability of duck layer (egg production) raising in the area because of water abundance is not being given due attention that inhibits proliferation of duck egg processing (salted egg or balut). The municipality contributes only a meager proportion of 0.16% to the total ducks raised in the province. The appropriate areas where to raise duck layers (itik) in large scale, in accordance with their land and water suitability are Brgys Buasao and Comitang
1.1.6 Fishery Production Status
a) Fishery Areas
The municipality is endowed with bodies of water, which accounts for 190.75 hectares or 1.99% of its total land area. These bodies of water have been dispersed in almost 23 out of the 24 barangays of the municipality. As such, a lot of communal fishery areas are being utilized by the people not for commercial purposes but mainly as means to meet immediate home food consumption. The fish species available in the area are tilapia, mudfish and catfish, which are found in the commonly fished areas such as the existing creeks and communal irrigation systems. The areas most suited for commercial fishpond production are Brgys Buasao, Burgos, Mabini and Casulucan. The introduction of commercial catfish production is an alternative, being eyed upon by the municipal government, to tilapia production in the areas. The soil type and water quality in the identified fishery areas are conducive to raise such species.
1.2. AGRO- FORESTRY
The agro- forestry industry refers to activities applying the combination of agriculture and forestry as productivity measures in the effective utilization of a parcel of flat, undulating or sloping land. The relatively flat and irrigated status of lands in the municipality inhibits the involvement into agro- forestry endeavor for economic viability and topographic reasons.
The forestry industry refers to activities applying forestry technology as productivity measures in the effective utilization of sloping areas. The municipality has no forest areas because of its lower elevation and flat topography. The establishment of forest areas will not likewise warrant its economic viability.
1.4. COMMERCE AND TRADE
1.4.1 Existing Commercial Areas
Commercial areas are those intended primarily for trading, services and business purposed. The existing commercial areas of the municipality are found in the following locations, most of them are concentrated in the Urban Area and adjoining barangays:
EXISTING COMMERCIAL AREAS, 2008
|COMMERCIAL AREAS||DESCRIPTION||AREA (ha)|
|A. URBAN AREA|
|1. Poblacion||Location of the Public Market||14,600|
|1. Cabugao||Combination of Residential and Commercial||0.54|
|2. Hulo||Location of Slaughter House||0.86|
|3. Malasin||Combination of Residential and Commercial||0.62|
|4. Pulong Buli||Combination of Residential and Commercial||0.26|
|5. Malaya||Combination of Residential nd Commercial||0.01|
Apart from the central business district concentrated in the designated Urban Area (i.e. Brgy Poblacion), there are also emerging commercial areas in Brgy Baloc mostly concentrated along the Maharlika Highway, and in Brgy Sto. Rosario that is within its Barangay proper
1.4.2 Type of Commercial Establishments
a) Business and Trades
Commercial establishments in the municipality are still in their infancy. There are still yet to be desired, but at the moment, the municipality is content with the establishments available in the area, such as those listed below:
TYPE AND NUMBER OF COMMERCIAL ESTABLISHMENTS, 2008
|oGeneral Retail Stores and Shops||50||o Commercial Housing Subdivision||1|
|o Food Marketing and Shops||34||o Financing Centers||7|
|o Personal Service Shops||5||o Agricultural Supplies/Shops||31|
|o Recreational Centers||2||o Miscellaneous Shops||18|
|o Restaurants and Eateries||6|
1.4.2 Type of Commercial Establishments
b) Banking and Financing
At present, there are three (3) banking institutions and four (4) credit institutions operating in the area. Apart from the banks, there are credit institutions that serve the small financing requirements of the people in the municipality. The credit facilities being offered are more n financing the acquisition of small home appliances, furniture, tricycles and even production and business loans for farmers and market vendors.
c) Commodity Marketing
The municipality beforehas a small Public Market where only few of the most basic commodities and food products can be regularly bought. Now with the newly constructed market building/stalls, accommodation of all the facilities required for marketing of various commodities, whether agricultural or non-agricultural based is very much possible.
Aside from the Poblacion market, the municipality has another market situated along Maharlika Highway at Barangay Baloc with the following parameters:
|LAND AREA||5,141 square meter|
d) Slaughter House
The municipality’s Slaughter House is located just 500 meters away from the Public Market. The details of the Slaughter House is given below:
Land Area : 1,700 square meters
Location : Brgy Hulo
Slaughtering Capacity: 15 hogs/day and 2 cattle/week
1.4.5 AGRO- INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT
The only agro- industrial development taking place in the municipality are the proliferation of rice mills, grain centers and commercial poultry production in Brgys Pulong Buli, Malayantoc and Sto Rosario. Being a food bowl for some high value crops like onion, tomato, water melon and squash, and some animal products like poultry and duck eggs, food manufacturing industries can be introduced to process these raw materials into finished products like dried and powdered onion, tomato paste and catsup, powdered squash, salted eggs, balut and canned chicken meat.
The areas suited for agro- industrial development are Brgy San Fabian, Malayantoc and Sto. Rosario, the latter being most conducive because of having some available areas located along the Provincial Highway and being a gateway to the province of Tarlac and Pangasinan.
1.4.6 INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT
184.108.40.206 Existing Industrial Areas
Industrial areas are those parcels of land with available power, water and roads that are used for the establishments of factories, manufacturing and processing plants (other than agro- industrial plants). The municipality has no existing nor established industrial areas although the proposed area is identified to be in Brgy Burgos located along the western side of the Baloc- Burgos-Sagaba road by virtue of its meeting the requirements for power, water and accessibility.
220.127.116.11 Type of Industrial Establishments
a) Cottage Industries
There are about 4 identified cottage industries existing in the municipality and they are:
COTTAGE INDUSTRIES IN THE MUNICIPALITY, 2008
|COTTAGE INDUSTRY||PRODUCTS MANUFACTURED||NUMBER|
|1. Iron Works||Window grills, Steel gates, Trailers||1|
|2. Furniture Making||Beds, Chairs, Tables, Cabinets||1|
|3. Bamboo Craft||Beds, Chairs, Tables||1|
|4. Upholstery Making||Sofa Set, Car Seats||-|
|5. Sash Factory||Wooden windows, Doors, Display Racks||-|
|6. Metal Craft||Metal Toys and Decorations||-|
|7. Hollow Blocks Making||Hollow Blocks, Decorative Blocks||1|
18.104.22.168 Type of Industrial Establishments
b) Factories and Other Industries
The municipality has no established factories of any sort although there are suitable and big industrial estates that can be put up.
The establishment of tourism attraction can be grouped or classified into three (3) areas, i.e.
a) Ecology- based tourism – where attraction is mainly centered on natural scenic spots like lakes, rivers, springs, waterfalls, forest, hills and mountain views. These are mainly found in upland areas.
b) Highway-based tourism – where attraction is mainly on man-made structures along major routes that can be used as stopover of tourists and visitors, like resorts, restaurants, eateries, hotels and lodging houses.
c) Product-based tourism – where attraction is based on exotic products being produced or abundantly found in the area that can be bought as souvenirs of tourist and visitors, like wood carvings, shells, fruits, vegetables and others.
22.214.171.124 Existing Tourism Areas and Activities
The municipality’s tourism areas are only those classified under highway-based man-made resorts. Todate, there are three (3) such resorts and these are the Marco Polo, Summerville and Bahay Manayika. All the resorts are equipped with swimming pool and small cottages.
1.4.8 MINING AND QUARRYING
126.96.36.199 Existing Mining and Quarry Areas
Mineral lands are those areas where metallic and non- metallic minerals can be found or extracted. There are no metallic minerals so far located, but there are abundance of non- metallic minerals like gravel and sand.
QUARRYING AREAS, 2008
|BARANGAY LOCATION||RIVER AREA||DESCRIPTION|
|1. Brgy Comitang||Along Ilog Baliwag River||Approximate Quarrying Area = 10 ha|
|1. Brgy Sto Rosario||Along Ilog Baliwag River||Approximate Quarrying Area = 5 ha|
|2. Brgy Dolores||Along Talavera River||Approximate Quarrying Area = 4 ha|
|4. Brgy Concepcion||Along Talavera River||Approximate Quarrying Area = 2 ha|
2. SOCIAL FRAMEWORK PROFILE
2.1.1 Literacy Rate
Literacy rate is defined as the percentage on number of people who can read and write in the vernacular. Illiteracy is the reverse which can be classified as those people 5 years and over who had not gone any schooling at all. The 2007 municipal population figures show a high literacy rate of 96.53%. On the illiteracy rate of 3.47%, it was observed that there are more in the rural areas than in the poblacion, which could be attributed to poor educational facilities in the barangays and the high poverty incidence that inhibits parents to send their children to schools. The statistics of literacy rate is shown below:
STATISTICS OF LITERACY RATE, 2007
|EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT||5 YEARS OLD AND OVER|
|o No Grade Completed||1,498||3.47|
|1. Pre- School||995||2.21|
|3. High School||13,521||31.27|
|4. Post- Secondary||1,195||2.76|
|5. College Undergraduate||4,055||9.38|
|6. Academic Degree Holder||1.476||3.41|
Though the literacy rate is high, the level of highest educational attainment of the people is rather low because of the big number of school age population that had not proceeded schooling at the secondary and tertiary level.
2.1.2 Elementary Education
The municipality has 23 elementary schools serving its 24 barangays. The statistics of these schools are given below:
LIST OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SCHOOLS AND ENROLLMENT, 2008
|A. PUBLIC SCHOOLS|
|o Elementary Schools||6,301||190||196|
|B. PRIVATE SCHOOLS|
|o Elementary Schools||-||-||-|
School Participation Rate (SPR) is defined as the percentage of students actually enrolled in the school as against the total number of school age population, i.e.
SPR = [(Number of Students Enrolled)/(School Age Population)] x 100
The SPR can not be determined accurately for the elementary schooling as other students from nearby municipalities of Guimba, Talavera and Quezon are also enrolled in Sto Domingo schools. For statistics purposes however, there are about 6,301 pupils enrolled in the primary and elementary schools while the school age population is only 7,845.
BARANGAYS WITH NO ELEMENTARY SCHOOL, 2008
|A. URBAN AREA|
|o Poblacion||Not a problem as residents utilize the nearby schools in|
|Malasin and Cabugao|
|B. RURAL AREA|
|o San Agustin||Currently sharing with San Fabian but needs to put up own|
2.1.3 Secondary Education
Elementary school graduates from various barangays have basically 4 different landing places of secondary schools, which are apart from the 2 high schools (i.e. Talavera National High School and Muñoz National High School) located outside of the municipality. The secondary schools utilized are shown below:
PREFERRED HIGH SCHOOLS OF ELEMENTARY GRADUATES
|NAME OF HIGH SCHOOL||%||REMARKS|
|A. WITHIN STO DOMINGO|
|1. PUBLIC SCHOOL|
|o Julia Ortiz-Luis National High School||42||Majority are: Sagaba, Malasin,|
|Brgy Sagaba||Burgos, Cabugao, Pulong Buli|
|Mambarao, Gen. Luna, Dolores|
|o National Trade School||14||Majority: baloc, Malayantoc,|
|o Sto Rosario Barangay High School||6||Majority are: Sto Rosario, Casulucan|
|Brgy Sto Rosario|
|2. PRIVATE SCHOOL|
|o Dominican High School||21||Majority are: Poblacion, Hulo, San|
|Brgy Poblacion||Pascual, Malaya|
|o Rominas Heavenly Angel||3||Majority Sagaba, Malasin,|
|Montissory School||Pulong Buli|
PREFERRED HIGH SCHOOLS OF ELEMENTARY GRADUATES
|NAME OF HIGH SCHOOL||%||REMARKS|
|B. OUTSIDE STO DOMINGO|
|1. Talavera National High School||12||Utilized by barangays nearer to the|
|Talavera Nueva Ecija||School: BUasao, Concepcion, San|
|Agustin, San Francisco|
|2. Muñoz National High School||5||Utilized by barangays nearer to the|
|Muñoz, Nueva Ecija||School: Casulucan, Malayantoc|
The 2008 figures revealed that out of school age population (13 to 16 years old) of 4,440 , about 4,004 were enrolled in the high schools. This represents a relatively satisfactory secondary school participation rate of 90.18% i.e.
SPR = [(4,004)/(4,440)] X 100, SPR = 90.18%
2.1.4 Tertiary Education
At the moment, there is no college or university situated at the municipality, however, there is no immediate felt need to establish such because of the nearness of the universities and colleges in Guimba, Cabanatuan and Muñoz and the municipality’s small population. The proportion of students going to the nearby tertiary schools are given below:
1. Cabanatuan City - 70 %
2. Muñoz (CLSU) - 27 %
3. Guimba - 3 %
Total - 100 %
2.2 HEALTH AND MEDICAL SERVICES
2.2.1 Health Facilities and Personnel
a) Public Health Center
Sto Domingo operates a Municipal Health Center (MHC) located at Brgy Malaya and 15 Barangay Health Units (BHUs) located at the different barangays of the municipality. Though the MHC and BHUs in their respective areas also service their adjoining barangays.
SERVICE DISTRIBUTION OF HEALTH UNITS, 2008
|AREA COVERAGE OF||NUM OF||POPUL’N||% REPRESENTATION|
|HEALTH UNITS||BRGYS||ON POP’N||ON AREA|
|Covered with Health Units||15||35,559||74.14||62.5|
|Not covered with Health Units||9||12,401||25.86||37.5|
The health personnel at the Municipal Health Center are being rotated to visit all the service barangays. Some of the barangays that have their own Barangay Health Units are being utilized by the centralized health personnel to render medical services during their onsite visit. The current number of health personnel being rotated are shown in the table below:
HEALTH AND MEDICAL PERSONNEL, 2008
b) Hospitals and Medical Clinics
Currently, the municipality has a District Emergency Hospital located at Brgy Pulong Buli that offer various medical services. The hospital accept in-patients for in-house treatments. They are all equipped with hospital beds and other medical facilities that enable them render even emergency treatment for accident patients.
Apart from the hospital above, there are several small clinics owned and operated by private doctors who are residents of the municipality.
2.2.2 Leading Causes of Morbidity
Table 31 gives the ten leading causes of morbidity, from 2005 to 2007. The most prominent of these, which appear almost repeatedly in the five year period are: Acute Respiratory Infection, Anemia and Hypertension.
2.2.3 Leading Causes of Mortality
The most prominent of these are” Pheumonia, Cerebro-Vascular Accident and Cancer.
2.2.4 Infant Mortality
Infant mortality shows an average rate of 23.41% over the three-year period from 2005 to 2007. The figure is not accurate as there are unrecorded cases of infant mortality, which is not being closely monitored by the Local Civil Registry (LCR) at the moment.
2.2.5 Nutritional Status
The municipality experienced an average malnutrition rate of 2.83% over the three-year period starting 2005 to 2007. The rate is acceptable and there is a sign of decreasing malnutrition cases over the years.
The kind of toilet facilities that people use determines the degree of sanitation in the disposal of their human wastes. Those toiler facilities falling under as Open Pit, Pail System or None at All are considered unsanitary and this kind of waste disposal is still being used by 4.60% of the population in 2000, as revealed by the following data:
STATISTICS OF UNSANITARY TOILET FACILITIES, 2007
|TOILET FACILITIES USED||NO. OF HOUSEHOLD||PERCENT|
|o Open Pit||198||1.85|
|o Pail System||13||0.12|
|o None at All||142||1.33|
|TOTAL NUMBER OF HOUSEHOLDS||10,703|
3. PROTECTIVE SERVICES
The municipality is accompanied with the maintenance of peace and order and the implementation of measures to combat disaster like fire and other calamities.
3.1 Peace and Order
a) Crime Statistics
The crime statistics in 2007 revealed that there were 21 crimes committed for the year. Compared with the municipality’s population, this accounts for only 0.0437% which indicates a fairly peaceful situation. Of the total crimes committed, the order of their occurrence is described below:
CRIME’S DEGREE OF OCCURRENCE, 2007
|3. Reckless Imprudence||23.81|
b) Police Facilities and Personnel
The municipality’s peace and order situation is being maintained by the Philippine National Police (PNP) and assisted in civilian matters by the Bantay Bayan at the respective Barangay levels. To-date, the PNP is maintaining a main station located at the Municipal Hall Compound in Brgy Malaya with their newly erected building.
All policemen are deployed at the main station. No one is permanently assigned and deployed at any specific Barangay because of the normally peaceful situation. Click here to view the profile of the municipal PNP personnel.
3.2 Fire Fighting Services
a) Fire Fighting facilities and Personnel
The local government unit has a Fire Department having a small office at the Municipal Hall Compound. You can check here to view the personnel behind this service unit.
4. SOCIAL WELFARE SERVICES
4.1 Programs and Services
Based from the 2007 records, the Municipal Social Welfare and Development Office (MSWDO) had implemented various programs and projects
MSWDO PROGRAMS AND PROJECTS IMPLEMENTED, 2007
|PROGRAMS AND PROJECTS||NUM OF BENEFICIARIES|
|1. Disadvantaged, Battered & Rape Cases||12 women|
|1. Establishment of Day Care Center||30 DCCs|
|2. Supplemental Feeding for Malnourished||731 children|
|3. Protection/Rehabilitation of Abused/Exploited Children||21 children|
|C. DISTRESSED/CALAMITY VICTIMS|
|1. Assistance to Calamity Situation||21 families|
4.2 Social Welfare Facilities and Personnel
The social welfare services in the municipality are being implemented by the devolved agency of the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD), which is now called the Municipal Social Welfare and Development Office (MSWDO). It is mandated by law to help and develop the most disadvantaged groups whether the individual, the family, or the whole community, to become self- reliant and to be an income producing sector. Click here to view the profile of MSWDO
4.3 Day Care Centers
Day Care Centers (DCC) had been established in majority of the barangays to cater to the early development of their respective pre- schoolers (ages 3 to 5 years old).
STATUS OF DAY CARE CENTERS, 2008
|1. Permanently Owned||27||Located in the School = 4|
|2. Shared with Barangay Hall||3||Needs separate DCCs|
5. HOUSING AND SHELTERS
5.1 Housing Status and Programs
In the municipality of Sto Domingo alone, the past 47 years (1960 to 2007) indicated that there is an average requirements of 45 dwelling units per year and expected to increased annually. There is currently an intended housing subdivision located at Brgy Malaya that should cater to some of the housing needs of the people.
6 SPORTS AND RECREATION
6.1 Sports and Recreation Facilities
The municipal government is encouraging the development of sports especially among the youth to divert their attention to more productive activities than being addicted to alcohol or dugs. Inter-barangay sports competition is being held by the municipal government once a year apart from the activities being undertaken by the Sangguniang Barangay among the youth.
Basketball seems to be the most popular sport as each Barangay has its own basketball court to hold any competition. The present inventory of sports and recreational facilities however, reveal inadequacy apart from the poor maintenance being accorded to the structures:
- Basketball Courts - 30
- Volleyball Courts - 5
- Lawn Tennis - 1
- Playgrounds - 15
- Gymnasium - 13
- Swimming Pool - 5
7. SPIRITUAL AND CULTURAL PRACTICES
7.1 Ethnic Groups and Cultures
The first inhabitants of Sto. Domingo came from Bulacan and Ilocos, which is the reason why the predominant dialects are Tagalog (76.11%) and Ilocanos (22.70%). Then came the people from various places of different ethnic origins but their presence has not changed the culture of early settlers. As of 2007, there were several dialects being spoken and the most prominent are given below:
STATISTICS OF DIALECT SPOKEN, 2007
7.2 Religious Affiliations
The religious affiliation of the people according to the 2007 statistics, is mostly dominated by Roman Catholic.
STATISTICS OF RELIGIOUS AFFILIATIONS, 2007
|1. Roman Catholic||35,160||74.25|
|3. Iglesia ni Cristo||3,587||7.48|
|4. United Methodist Church||645||1.45|
|5. Jehovah’s Witnesses||240||0.5|
The municipal government respects the religious belief of the people. Because of this democratic religious process, a lot of chapels from various religions proliferate in various barangays. Todate, the municipality has about 67 churches/chapels belonging to various religions such as Catholic, Iglesia ni Cristo, Aglipay, United Church of Christ, United Methodist and Jehovah’s Witness.
8. ORGANIZATIONS AND HUMAN RESOURCES
8.1 Type of People Organizations
It is conceived that the economic development of the rural areas and the alleviation of poverty in the countryside could be achieved through the formation of people’s organizations and cooperative. The cooperatives are recognized by the national government as the juridical bodies of the farmers and the underpriviledged for which they can transact business and operate livelihood projects.
The concept of cooperatives and people’s groupings was promoted and there were 26 organizations created as early as 1986 so that the people of the municipality can put up income-generating projects that will help alleviate their poverty. These organizations were even supported by various government agencies (like CDA, DAR, LBP and Department of Agriculture) by pouring in financial assistance. After a few years of operation, only 15 of the 17 cooperatives are operating while the rest if had not gone bankrupt, have been inactive in their operations because of liquidity problem.
8.2 Human Resource Development Programs
Human resource development is being undertaken by government agencies responsible in registering and supporting such people’s organizations. The Cooperative Development Authority (CDA) has been responsible for the development. The Department of Agrarian Reform (DAR) has been responsible in capability building of agrarian reform beneficiaries and various training had been conducted.